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Odessa - The pearl at the sea
The Marine terminal
The Marine terminal



The pearl at the sea

At the Black Sea shore the nature created an amazing spot. In ancient days, its territory was a home for Scythians, Greeks and Slavs. During the Kyivska Rus period, it was a part of the Slavic State.
In the XIIIth century, a territory of the city of Odessa was conquered by Tatar-Mongols, in early XVth century by Lithuania, and in the midst of the XVth century was attached to Turkey. And, finally, in 1791 Odessa became a part of the Russian Empire.

Odessa was founded in 1794 by Catherine the Great. The city's name came about because of an error.
It was meant to be named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos or Ordissos, which was believed to have been founded in the vicinity.
Actually, it was somewhere near the present day town of Varna in Bulgaria. However, Catherine the Great liked "Adessa" as the Russians and Ukrainians pronounce it.
Modern Odessa is one of the picturesque cities of Ukraine, the Southern Gates of the country.
The city of Odessa is a port on Odessa Bay of the Black Sea.
Its territory is 160 square km. Population is 1,122,000 (1995). The third largest Ukrainian city after Kiev and Kharkov, a major industrial, cultural, scientific, and resort center in the Northern Black Sea region. Russians, Ukrainians, and Jews predominate in Odessa's cosmopolitan population.


Climate

The climate in Odessa is moderately continental and comparatively dry. There are more than 290 sunny days in the year. Winter is short and mild with an average temperature of around freezing point. Falling snow and temperatures below minus 10 Celsius are rare. Summer is long and hot with an average temperature of 25 Celsius. Temperatures above 35 Celsius are quite often.


Economics

Odessa is the largest seaport of Ukraine as well as an important rail junction and highway hub. Odessa is a major industrial center. Grain, sugar, machinery, coal, petroleum products, cement, metals, jute, and timber are the chief items of trade at the port of Odessa, which is the leading Ukrainian Black Sea port. Odessa is also a naval base and the home port of a fishing and an Antarctic whaling fleet. The city's industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, machine building, metalworking, food processing, and the manufacture of chemicals, machine tools, clothing, and products made of wood, jute, and silk. The relatively mild climate of Odessa draws visitors to the citys many resorts. Large health resorts are located nearby.


Transportation

Odessa has regular air connections with Vienna (Austrian Airlines and Air Ukraine International, daily), Tel Aviv (ElAl), Istanbul (Turkey Airlines), Athens, Aleppo, Larnaka, Moscow, Kiev, Kishineu, Yerevan, Tiflis as well as with some other cities of Europe and Asia.
Trains connect Odessa with Warsaw, Prague, Bratislava, Vienna, Berlin, Moscow, SaintPetersburg, major cities of Ukraine and many other cities of the former Soviet Union. Buses go between Odessa and Germany (Berlin, Hamburg, Munich), Greece (Thessalonica, Athens), Bulgaria (Varna, Sophia) as well as major cities in Ukraine. There is regular passenger ship transportation between Odessa and Istanbul, Haifa and Varna.